Archive | March, 2011

Escape the Urban: Maple Pilgrimages

20 Mar

Growing up in Buffalo in the late seventies and early eighties, I was regularly afflicted with that most dreaded of suburban pursuits: the Sunday Afternoon Car Ride. A fond childhood memory for both of my parents in the automobile-crazy post-World War II boom years, the “car ride” was a pleasure they too wished to pass on. Now we as a nation drive so much on daily commutes, and are so conscious of gas prices and environmental damage, that simply motoring a tank of gas away for fun on a weekend sounds positively antiquated. And maybe it was in 1982 as well. But that didn’t stop us from simply piling in the white station wagon and driving around Ontario or into the Southern Tier with no real goal or planned route. Most of my memories of that time revolve around boredom and motion sickness, but in truth it wasn’t all bad. I have fond memories of Sunday’s in the Fall, when we’d be sure to stay in radio range of Van Miller’s voice calling Buffalo Bills games. And once each year, in the spring, we’d leave with a purpose, and have a real destination: the Maple Tree Inn.

Which is how I found myself pouring my own children into a van before dawn this past Friday to drive two hours to Angelica and make the annual Castner pilgrimage to the Mecca of pancakes and bow down before the creators of the world’s greatest maple syrup. The Cartwrights have been making brown sugary heaven in a backwoods shack for over a hundred years, and serving all-you-can-eat breakfast as an excuse to get people to crave more maple syrup for almost fifty. We went nearly every year when I was a kid, and now I still get the hankering come March – in my internal body clock, melting snow, budding crocuses and spring mud tastes like pancakes.

At this point you may be asking what place eating 2000 calories worth of griddled batter has in an outdoor column. Fair question. All regular trekkers and amateur athletes, like myself, know a full breakfast is key to sustaining outdoor activity throughout the course of a trip. Consider this an indulgent option to remotivate you to get your road miles in the next day. 


The quest-like nature of the expedition and the many hurdles that must be overcome combine in a sweet confection that only adds to the eventual pleasure. First, a small window of opportunity. The restaurant is only open for two months each year, when the sap flows from mid-February to early April. Second, the two hour drive, literally over the river and through the woods, where I spotted many a swollen torrent ripe for white water rafting. Third, the wait. There is a line at all hours, and under all circumstances, as you battle bus-loads of sharp-elbowed geriatrics. But the struggle only whets the appetite, builds the anticipation, makes the feast that follows that much more satisfying.

It is all worth it – the wait, the drive, the mean pensioners – when that first steaming pile of flapjacks arrives. The perennial favorite is buckwheat, gritty and grey and fluffy to soak up as much maple syrup as possible. If you don’t like buckwheat, buckwheat is also available.  If you still aren’t sold, Scrooge cheeseburgers are on the menu, though I have never seen one served.

I dream of the cascading, never-ending, Paschal-font of pancakes all year, but truly they are simply maple syrup delivery devices, a vehicle to transport boiled tree sap to my mouth. I am a maple syrup snob after being spoiled with such authenticity year after year – the brown gold is thick but not too heavy, far more substantial than the supermarket sugar-water labeled “breakfast product” by its own admission. I taste, and savor, and shovel some more. My sons and I ate our original plates plus three refills, but who’s counting, when pancakes and syrup is involved.

Until next year. In the meantime, I have some running to do.

Yay Friday.

18 Mar

I don’t want to start out a weekend discussing old Amherst ladies blocking billion-dollar projects, and I don’t want to kick off Friday by writing about the Statler, or Bloomberg, or Japan, or McCray, or air strikes in Libya (it’s 1986 again), or independent conservative candidate for NY-26 David Bellavia’s praise of Kathy Hochul’s office’s work with Veterans (really). Instead, I want to focus on things that make me laugh, not think. Thinking is depressing.

This one, of which I was reminded by some kid who sang it quite well on Idol this week:


Karl Pilkington visits China in “An Idiot Abroad”:


Air strikes on Libya? Reminds me of being 18.


Gervais interprets Hitler meeting Nietzsche:


And finally, Monty Python interprets our comments section:


Verizon Withdraws Plans For Niagara County Datacenter

17 Mar

Click to embiggen

Plans for a $4,500,000,000 Verizon data center in Somerset, NY were withdrawn today and the project canceled.  Verizon notified Niagara County Industrial Development Agency officials that the company intended to build the data center in another state.

The company planned to spend $500MM to build 900,000 square feet of data center space on land currently owned by AES Power.   The data centers would have been filled with up to $3.4 billion worth of equipment over the 20-year life of the facility. Combined with land, utilities and other costs, the project represented a total investment of about $4.5 billion.  The project, originally proposed to begin in November of 2010, but held up in legal proceedings, was to be rolled out in phases.

  • Phase 1 equipment, 2011-13, $640 million.
  • Phase 2 equipment, 2014-15, $800 million.
  • Phase 3 equipment, 2016-21, $2 billion.
  • Equipment maintenance and miscellaneous, $500 million.

Verizon planned to build three two-story data centers on the 17-acre property, each with about 300,000 square feet of space. The company also planned a 20,000-square-foot administration building, two substations for backup power and a glass-walled pavilion which would have been used as a conference center.  In exchange for absorbing the land acquisition and construction costs, Verizon was seeking tax incentives in the form of a 20-year payment-in-lieu-of-taxes (PILOT) arrangement, estimated at $330 million over the life of the agreement. Verizon was also seeking grants from the Empire State Development Corporation and the New York Power Authority. Verizon claimed a minimum of 200 people would have been employed at the site with an average annual salary of $80,000.  Construction of the site would have also brought several hundred construction jobs during the various phases of the project buildout.

Verizon was attracted to the region based on several advantages for data center operations, including the ability to use fresh-air cooling (major cost savings) virtually year round and green, renewable power available from the Niagara Power Project.  The Verzion data center would have had a similar footprint and design to the Yahoo! data center in nearby Lockport, NY.

A company wanted to invest $4.5 Billion into our local economy and suddenly changed their mind.  So, you might be asking yourself at this point, WHA HAPPEN?!?! Why did Verizon cancel this project?  Was it the unfriendly business climate fostered by New York State that caused the change of heart?  No, it was one lady and her lawyer.

Mary Ann Rizzo, an elderly woman who resides in Amherst, but owns property across from the proposed data center, retained professional legal obstructionist attorney Arthur Giacalone to stop the project.  She was not demanding changes to the project, she did not want issues remediated, she intended to stop the project and force it to relocate to another area of Niagara County.  She was seeking to preserve the “rustic charm” of this strip of state road bordered by a coal fired power plant and a food processing facility.

See, data centers aren’t objectively bad, just data centers across from her property.

Her initial legal claim was dismissed by Acting State Supreme Court Justice Matthew Murphy back in January, but Rizzo and her attorney appealed that decision.  Giacalone used a common tactic in proceedings like this called “perfecting the appeal“, utilizing the maximum time to file appeals and paperwork to delay the hearings.  The hope is that the delay would force the defendant to simply drop the project in question.  Verizon filed to expedite the appeal process, a judge declined to expedite and five days later, Verizon decided to cancel the project and presumably move it to their second choice location, Laramie, WY.  Giacalone’s plan worked.

State Senator George Maziarz appeared with Brad Riter on WECK1230 AM today to give the eulogy for what would have been an awesome project for WNY.

Since Rizzo doesn’t currently live on the property, what is found at the location?  Well, Judge Murphy noted in his review of her claim that the structures on her property are a dilapidated shack and a garage-type structure and that there is no certificate of occupancy for either structure.

So, welcome to Western New York where the eccentric, selfish dickhead infection has reached epic fucking proportions.  Seriously, one person, who doesn’t even live near the site in question can stop a $4.5 BILLION development?  What in the holy rolling fuck is wrong with the people in this god damned region?  200 permanent jobs, 500-600 construction jobs and hundreds of potential jobs from supporting vendors were killed because of the whims of one person?

Verizon laying fiber optic lines, dragging power out to the lake, and making a 20 year commitment to the region has so many ancillary benefits, it’s almost immeasurable.  Verizon and Yahoo! building massive data centers in WNY, which utilize our hydropower and favorable climate conditions would have been an anchor for future job growth and corporate investment.  But hey, who cares about that when we’re preserving rustic charm, right?

I guess we’ll keep leaning on the marketing power generated by our short commutes and plethora of locally owned urban tsotchke shops to return Buffalo and WNY to national economic relevance.


Ian Murphy Running for Congress

16 Mar

Buffalo Beast editor and Koch-prankster Ian Murphy will be running as a Green Party candidate for the NY-26 congressional seat recently vacated by Chris Lee.

Currently running are Jane Corwin (R), Jack Davis (RXAH), David Bellavia (Ind.). The Democratic candidate will be announced after a candidate interview and meeting of the party chairs on March 19th.

Jack Davis: Party Like it’s 1859

16 Mar

Dear Republican Chairs in NY-26:

I was pleased to learn via the Buffalo News that Akron madman Jack Davis’ anti-immigrant positions have outraged even you. He recently suggested to you during your interviews of congressional candidates that migrant farm labor in the GLOW counties should be deported and replaced with inner-city blacks. It’s not only a fundamentally unfair, racist, and plain dumb imposition on farmers, but also an even more insidious variant on Paladino’s own suggestion that the poors be sent to de-mobilized jails and put to work.

Yet you guys were silent about uncle Carl’s labor camp idea.

You were also silent in 2008 when Davis had previously said some pretty nasty stuff about immigrants in general and Mexicans in particular. In 2008, you guys happily and surreptitiously aided Davis’ effort to destroy Jon Powers, leaving your golden ladyboy-phile Chris Lee to coast to an easy victory over Alice Kryzan. It’s all rather cynical, in the end. But that’s politics.

But to the larger point, we’ve known for three years that Jack Davis – whose congressional attempts are 0-3, and who has alienated just about everyone with whom he’s ever come into contact – doesn’t just hate free trade or the WTO, he hates foreigners. He hates immigrants. He hates them. We learned three years ago that there ought to be no place in WNY politics for a dirty, hateful xenophobe like Jack Davis.


I was outraged in 2008. What took you so long?

Love, BP

Quick Thoughts

16 Mar

Do Not Be Alarmed - this most likely isn't going to happen (

It’s time for another article of thoughts that haven’t yet seen enough yeast to grow into their own columns. The unifying thread? SuperFAIL:

1) President Obama has some unfortunate energy policy timing, advocating increased off-shore drilling prior to the massive Gulf oil spill, and nuclear energy before the continuing disaster in Japan. Not that he is to blame – we are short on energy solutions that are not destructive at normal levels, and catastrophic on the extremes. Irresponsible natural gas exploration is contaminating Pennsylvania, the Canadians are destroying Alberta to free oil from tar sands, and there is nothing practical available to replace them. Hard to move to renewables like wind when our local turbines sit idle far more than they spin. Investment is the only pragmatic strategy if we want an environmentally sustainable energy policy: lots of money to regulate current energy industries to follow existing environmental laws, scraping and reworking from scratch our subsidy system to stop picking winner and losers and instead peg commodities to their true total cost, and basic science investment in research and future technologies. Don’t expect to hear any of that in the near future.

2) The census is complete, so it’s redistricting time, in Erie County and at the state level. In Erie County, the commission to redraw legislative districts, consolidating from 15 to 11, met for the first time. As Artvoice reports, the main topic of conversation was how much to do before data on population counts are actually available. In Buffalo’s petty rice bowl politics, the underlying question is who wins and who loses. Geoff Kelly believes no one wins except Ray Walter. Which is another way of saying, we’re all winning.

On the New York State front, the debate in the GOP controlled Senate is whether to change the constitution to mandate impartial redistricting (a plan with an 11 year delay), do a legislative patch now, or both. So far, only the Republicans and Citizens Union, an independent reform lobby, have weighed in. The Democratic controlled Assembly still has a chance to weigh in with traditional partisan redistricting, and screw up this Good Government push. But if these are the only options presented, we’re winning here too. (And this is the only non-FAIL you will see in this column.) 

3) It’s about to be construction season, and WNYMedia’s own intrepid Andrew Kulyk is filling in well on development watch for Mark Brynes, on prolonged sabbatical. What to watch for in 2011?!?! Not much an Canalside, unless you count a little more decking and bike racks as construction. Work on anything requiring an excavator will wait til the Fall. Also watch for an again delayed Federal Courthouse, that not only bears no resemblance to its graphic sales pitch, but is now rotting from the inside. Speaking of rotting, the steel beams of the Casino are rusting away, and may need to come down, even if a permanent complex is eventually built. Finally, if you are looking for hope, don’t look at the Statler – based upon past divisions between Croce and the Mayor, expect summer fights over the $5 million promised to help rehab the lower levels in time for the Convention That Will Save Buffalo.

Faux Canals as Destination

16 Mar

In reference to Andrew Kulyk’s Canal Side piece, part of the problem is crowdsourcing every damned development decision that gets done. It’s design by committee. From the Wikipedia entry:

Often, when software is designed by a committee, the original motivation, specifications and technical criteria take a backseat and poor choices may be made merely to appease the egos of several individual committee members. Such products and standards end up doing too many things or having parts that fit together poorly (because the entities who produced those parts were unaware of each other’s requirements for a good fit).

When I participated in the Outer Harbor committee, it consisted of people throwing out ideas and being led by a moderator who tried to corral those ideas, and to explain what was and was not possible. After about five hours’ worth of idea-throwing, one member came armed with a concise and apparently do-able plan – complete with site plans – that could be implemented quickly and facilitate activities on the outer harbor sooner rather than later. We all voted to move forward on that plan. The only major discussion surrounded which entity would ultimately control the facility.

All it takes is one good idea, implemented well. Instead…

And that is the dirty little secret here. The Partnership for the Public Good, the Project for Public Spaces, Citizens Against Casino Gambling in Erie County, Preservation Board, or whatever they are calling themselves this week… no matter, the same vile people who have thrown a monkey wrench into this for years. They want nothing to be built there. The minute the threat of a shovel going into the ground is imminent, these people sue.

I wouldn’t call them vile. I’d call them short-sighted or self-interested. Colin argues that history is important. Well, yes. History is important. But we’re not really having an argument about history, we’ve been having an argument about recreating history versus interpreting history. It’s a matter of degrees. Yet the most vociferous proponents of “re-creating” history ignore much of it. They ignore the seediness of the canal district of yore. They ignore that there was a huge, massive Central Wharf Terminal right smack on the river. They ignore that the canal district of the 1900s was a bustling commercial area, not a place replete with art installations or wind-powered ferris wheels.

And while we have these hugely disingenuous arguments, nothing happens because the appointees who work for ECHDC, which is charged with making these changes, don’t want to piss anyone off. So we have countless hearings and committee meetings and other feel-good get-togethers that enable everyone and his brother to come on down and tell ’em what they oughta do.

Notice I haven’t mentioned the bait shop once. The bait shop isn’t the point.

This stuff isn’t rocket science. As Chris explained in comment to Andrew, the ECHDC’s role going forward should be to implement a design and architectural standard & code for the parcels under its control, it should help facilitate events for the time being, it should pave and zone, it should dig, re-water, and remediate, and finally it should ensure that the city or some managing agent/entity implements a one-stop, easy place for businesses to sell, builders to build, vendors to vend, and events to take place.

The benefits of a master-planned area under the management of one retail-oriented entity makes sense because it can be that one-stop-shop and help market, design, and maintain everything in a handy way. But say “Benderson” and guys with no visible means of support who drive around in convertible school buses get upset.

As with many things, other cities are eons ahead of us when it comes to “building something people like to go to”. The best thing the state can do right now to spur interest in Canal Side would be for it and Erie County to turn the areas under ECHDC and NFTA control into sales-tax-free zones. We could call it Shenzhen-on-the-Lake. The real impediment isn’t Bass Pro types or ECHDC types or suburbanites or anyone else arguing with the earnest anti-Casino/Retail/Development/Benderson/Central Wharf types. What has to happen is for there to be an economic environment and incentive for people to want to get involved in developing a dead waterfront at the foot of a struggling city’s dead Main Street. Either way, downtown development delayed is downtown development denied.

Spoiled Tweens Whining

15 Mar

I’m fascinated by the juxtaposition of an old man complaining about being “slandered” by a news report whilst accusing everyone and his mother of being a “con man”. It’s also notable that, like a spoiled tween, the former candidate blames everyone else for his own mistakes. The buck stops with that other guy – that “con man”.


Jack Davis Campaign Staffer By Day, Male Escort By Night

14 Mar

Campaigning for a congressional seat is serious business; Congress is serious business.  It behooves us, the people, to avoid sending irresponsible dummies to represent us in Congress if at all possible. For instance, knowing what we know now, perhaps more people would have refused to vote for former Rep. Chris Lee (R – Clarence/Disgraced).

Coming on the heels of Lee’s epic, half-day-long self-immolation at the temple of Craigslist’s finest “passable TS/CD”, a gaggle of people are clamoring to run for a seat that could very well be redistricted out of existence next go-around. The Republicans have already selected Jane Corwin to run for the NY-26 seat, and marginally-more-conservative Iraq War veteran David Bellavia is coming at Corwin from the right.  The Democrats waited until there was an election called to begin their selection process in earnest.

Regardless of whom the Democrats select, there will be a fourth candidate – Jack Davis of the loony party. Davis, who couldn’t get elected in 2004, or again in 2006 in the wake of Tom Reynolds’ involvement in the Mark Foley congressional page sex scandal, or even make it through the primary against Jon Powers and Alice Kryzan in 2008, figures that the 4th time’s the charm. He’s reconfigured his website, hired the Clownshoes Political Consultancy, Ltd, got himself on the Twitters, and even has a solitary Facebook fan.

But when someone runs for Congress – especially a seat made vacant due to sex scandal, you’d figure that the candidate would properly vet his campaign staff and weed out … well, weed out the male prostitutes.

Last week, ads began popping up on Craigslist and other free online classifieds like Backpage seeking campaign workers for a campaign starting March 10th. Prospective employees were asked to call “Jay” at a number with a 303 area code; Colorado.  Here’s one from backpage that’s still cached in Google:

The ads, while cached, have since been quickly scrubbed by the person who posted them when people started connecting the dots. Here’s the Craigslist ad that appeared in the Buffalo section – again featuring Jay with a 303 area code:

That ad still appears, but instead urges people to call Jay at a 716 area code. “Jay” at that 303 area code is named Jay Lasher, whose political provenance isn’t clear through Google searches; it’s hard to fathom why he was selected to do the hiring for a nascent political campaign. Here’s his MySpace profile, which now sports a different name:

Here’s the top of his Facebook profile, which has since seen its name changed and information locked down:

Here’s how it looks today, with the same Palin profile image, but the same changed name as the MySpace profile, in what appears to be a clear effort to conceal.

So, what’s all this about male prostitution, you ask? Well, click to enlarge this wholly different ad that Lasher evidently took out last year through Note the inventive transformation of that same 303 phone number. His email? “jay4massage”. He has strong hands that know how to be soft and the desire to make this an event you’ll never forget.  I wonder if that’s the pitch he gave Jack Davis about collecting petition signatures?

Click to enlarge

Lasher also apparently took out this ad in “CityVibe”, offering escort services and massage. Again, same phone number, same 303 area code, and the lanky, long-haired guy in the image closely resembles the profile image in Lasher’s MySpace profile:

Click to enlarge

Stamina, drive, and “strong hands” that “know how to be gentle”.

The following ad that Lasher evidently took out is particularly unsafe for work and quite sexually explicit.  Again, it features the name “Jay” as in “jay4massage” and the same 303 area coded number.

The first image shows the information; his phone number, his email address, and the special and stamina-y services he offers.

Click to enlarge

Here’s the second part of the ad, which reveals his “strong hands”.

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Note especially the fascinating disclaimer:

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Lastly, three graphic ways of proving that the ad is “NOT an offer of prostitution!”

We’re not passing judgment on homosexuality or sensual massage or happy endings or whether prostitution should be legal. None of those philosophical issues matter.  Jay Lasher is, as far as we’re concerned, free to pursue any employment he wants whether it’s being a male escort or getting petitions for the execrable Jack Davis. (Frankly, the former may be more morally correct than the latter).

What matters here is that xenophobic newly-minted tea partier, former Republican-turned-Democrat-turned-nutter Jack Davis has demonstrated such poor judgment and political self-awareness that he hired a guy off the street to run his petition effort who happens to have recently hired himself out as an erotic masseuse, claiming not to be  a male prostitute, despite adding pictures of his erect penis to his “massage” ads.  Literally anyone with a rank knowledge of how to use Google could have vetted Jay Lasher a bit better.

On Friday, WNYMedia editor Chris Smith emailed David DiPietro, (who is officially employed by the Jack Davis campaign) and asked him if he was aware that someone named Jay Lasher with a 303 area code telephone number was soliciting paid canvassers on behalf of the Davis campaign.  DiPietro replied, “Jack does have an outside firm helping with petitions along with a number of volunteers.  I do not know the ‘Jason’ you are talking about, but I am not directly involved in the petition part of the campaign.  I will find out tommorrow (sic).  It is too late tonight.  The 303 number does sound familiar.  I’ll let you know.”

Calls made to Lasher’s 303 number were, likewise, not answered or returned.

Click to enlarge

After two days of waiting for that response, Smith again emailed DiPietro and campaign attorney Jim Ostrowski for comment on the specific matter of Lasher’s alleged masseuse-cum-escort side-job, we are still awaiting an official reply.  This morning, in response to this active Craigslist ad enjoining people to call “Jay” at a 716 number about working in the campaign office, Smith called asking to speak with Jay, Jeremey, Jason, and any other “J” name he could think of, ending in “Lasher”.  The woman who answered confirmed that the number was, in fact, the Davis campaign’s office, but that no one named “Jay” worked there, or had ever worked there.  A follow-up call revealed an outgoing voice mail message featuring a male voice asking people who are calling about the “ad” to leave their information.

If this is how Davis goes about hiring campaign staff, whom exactly will he hire should he go to Congress?  It’s about smarts and responsibility.

The voters of the 26th Congressional district have suffered through Jack Davis’ moneyed temper tantrums three times already, and each time has been an utter disaster. He’s alienated everyone who supported or helped him in those efforts, and has become a grumpy, reclusive, immigrant-hating Monty Burns who thinks he can buy himself a Congressional seat.

Just say no to Jack Davis, his petitions, their carriers, and his final quixotic exercise in self-aggrandizement.

Escape the Urban: Seemless Habitat

13 Mar

The Chief Scientist of the Nature Conservancy, Peter Kareiva, has a radical thought – there is no wilderness left, humans are part of the environment, and its foolhardy to pretend otherwise. As such, the goal of conservation should be to create working sustainable landscapes, not to protect abstract “biodiversity,” or other shibboleths that ultimately mean little to all but white, rich Americans.

A couple of the gems from Dr. Kareiva:

People want to be safe and secure, have food and shelter, and have an opportunity to better their lives. And they will use natural resources in any way possible to further those objectives.

The modern conservation movement has been naive in its strategies of defending nature against these human goals. Most notable is the thinking that “fortress conservation”—in the form of parks and nature reserves with guards and restrictions—can both expand enough to protect biodiversity and hold up against the pressures of the projected 2 billion more people by midcentury who will be in search of food and water.

The conservation of the future will be less and less about protected areas and increasingly about working landscapes, in which the most intrusive human activities are planned for and managed to generate the least damage and to avoid irreplaceable natural systems that cannot tolerate heavy impacts.

The Nature Conservancy and other conservation groups write about “millions of acres protected.” Protected from what? From humans? The message of protecting nature from humans is a losing message to most of the world.

The alternative message is a goal of providing billions of people with a natural environment that is managed to meet their needs in perpetuity. We have to change the way people think about conservation, so that its connection to their well-being is ingrained.

Such pragmatism may seem common sense to those outside of the environmental community, but it flies in the face of decades of philosophy, activism, and trumpeted “success.” Environmentalists have taken an American Big Box approach to conservation – let everyone go to Walmart for their toilet paper, and the Grand Canyon in the summer to get their nature. The humans live over here. The nature lives over there. Its all very neat, clean, and separate. Nature is protected from humans, and if we just wall off enough of it, we’ll somehow shelter all the endangered species, maintain clean water, stop climate change, etc etc.

Dr. Kareiva is talking about blurring the lines, and managing all our land more efficiently. Integrate people and nature, and create a sustainable balance. Because even if we lock up ever larger sections of the world, and protect them from us, humans are still going to find the water, energy, food, livelihood and security they need to survive, one way or the other. Thus far, that has not been done in a ecologically sustainable way.

Such thoughts are not ivory tower treatises – they impact us in Western New York. Can we drill for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale and maintain the ecological integrity of the Southern Tier? Must Gasland be the result? Or with sufficient technology, regulation, oversight, and safety measures, can it be recovered without destroying the Allegheny Mountains? How much does the gas have to cost to pay for that rigorous oversight? Traditionally, oil companies would line up on one side shouting about jobs and development, and seek to undermine any regulations that would contain their activities. On the other side, environmental groups would line, and seek to place Allegheny in the fortress, under lock and key, and protect it from the humans, us. Dr. Kareiva’s model would admit that humans will get their energy from somewhere, and we should be asking “how,” and not “if,” because “if” isn’t working.